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Bridge DATA Series

Data Analysis Teaching Activities


Lessons in the Bridge DATA Series address timely and important issues and provide students with opportunities to use scientific data as scientists do, in ways that demonstrate how data are collected and analyzed.

Most DATA Series investigations can be completed within several class periods. The DATA Series is made up of lessons called "DATA Tips" which may be taught individually.

Browse the Bridge DATA Series by topic, or search the entire collection for a specific key word.

Bridge DATA - Aquaculture: A Cornucopia?
Compare aquaculture production statistics for the U.S. and Canada to evaluate the demand for fisheries products.

Bridge DATA - Catch and Release II
Investigate trends in catch and release fishing with data from the National Marine Fisheries Service Marine Recreational Fisheries program.We first brought you this DATA exercise in 2000 when we took a look at a new generation of ethical anglers participating in "catch and release" fishing. Now we check back in to see if the trends in catch and release fishing have changed.

Bridge DATA - Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu
Examine trends and effort for the Chilean sea bass using data from the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

Bridge DATA - Coral Bleaching: A White Hot Problem
Some of the planet's most diverse ecosystems are at risk. With temperatures on the rise, coral reefs are at greater risk for coral bleaching. In this DATA exercise, students assess coral bleaching using water temperature data from the NOAA National Data Buoy Center to discuss howit may have affected coral reefs and predict what may be on the horizon.

Bridge DATA - Diversity of the Deep
Explore the diversity of organisms living on deep sea hydrothermal vents! In this exercise, students calculate species richness, evenness and diversity for collections of deep sea organisms using data collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

Bridge DATA - Fish Communities
Compare and contrast fish communities, diversity and habitats in U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries.

Bridge DATA - For the Birds!
Compare marine bird sighting report data from the Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC).

Bridge DATA - Galapagos: Discover the Diversity
Using data from FishBase, explore the various fish species that exist in the Galapagos Islands.

Bridge DATA - Harmful Algal Blooms
Compare concentrations of harmful algal blooms using NOAA's Coastal Services Center Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting (HABF) Project data.

Bridge DATA - Hold the Anchovies
Using Microsoft Excel, graph atmospheric and fisheries data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to look for evidence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and its connection to fish abundance.

Bridge DATA - Iron Fertilization: Pumping Iron
Using data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, track chemical changes during an upwelling event and investigate the effects of iron enrichment.

Bridge DATA - Let's Count Humpback Whales
Using whale count data from the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, compare whale counts in relation to environmental factors.

Bridge DATA - More Than Meets the Eye
When it comes to ability to see their prey, there's more than meets the eye for some species of large pelagic fishes. Evaluate fish physiology and ecology using vision research data from Dr. Kerstin Fritsches at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.

Bridge DATA - More than Mud
Examine the effects of pollution on amphipods using data from the Chesapeake Ecotox Research Program.

Bridge DATA - Oceanography: Classroom BATS
Analyze Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study data to observe chemical, physical, and biological properties of the ocean at work.

Bridge DATA - Off the Hook
Explore bycatch issues and various reduction strategies using data from the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Bridge DATA - On the Half Shell: Raw Seafood
Seafood, and oysters in particular, are a holiday tradition for many. And, since December is an "R" month it's safe to eat oysters, right? Seafood handled and cooked properly is very safe to eat, but eaten raw can be a different story. Analyze vibrio bacteria data from the Centers for Disease Control to identify trends in outbreaks.

Bridge DATA - Oyster Gardens: No Soil Required!
Using data from Maryland Sea Grant Oyster Gardening Program, calculate oyster survivorship rates in Chesapeake Bay rivers.

Bridge DATA - Saving Sturgeon
Atlantic sturgeon have survived since the age of the dinosaurs. Centuries ago, these giant fish were abundant in Virginia rivers. However, today these fish are struggling to stay off the endangered species list. How could such an immense species that could survive for millions of years become nearly extinct in a few short centuries?

Bridge DATA - Sharks: Taking a Bite Out of the Myth
Explore trends in shark populations using shark landing data from the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Bridge DATA - The Blue Crab's Chesapeake Journey
Determine the areas of the Chesapeake Bay that are being used by blue crabs during different life stages using data from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) trawl survey.

Bridge DATA - The Goose is Loose!
Explore trends in Canada goose populations using data from the National Audubon Society's Christmas Bird Count.

Bridge DATA - The Scoop on Scallops
Quantify the abundance and distribution of sea scallops in and adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic closed areas.

Bridge DATA - Without An Ark
Investigate the impacts of a hurricane on the New River in North Carolina using streamflow data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Bridge DATA: Coral Snapshots
While it is possible to survey a coral reef using quadrats, scientists are now using technology to closely examine the entire reef; instead of extrapolating results from several study sites. Scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science are taking video of reefs and then analyzing it via a computer program back in the lab. This method cuts down on the inherent error associated with the quadrat system and actually requires less time and money spent in the field.

Bridge DATA: Oyster Disease
A relatively new oyster disease in New England waters is affecting survival rates of young oysters. Using data from the University of Maine, students will determine if oyster size, time of planting, or water temperature is significant in relation to the onset of juvenile oyster disease.

Bridge DATA: Tracking the Invasive Veined Rapa Whelk
Veined rapa whelks (Rapana venosa) are predatory marine snails that have been introduced into the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These large snails eat ecologically and commercially valuable shellfish including oysters and hard clams. Rapa whelks are long lived, reproductively active and have few predators making them likely to become established if the habitat environmental conditions are suitable. In this activity, students will determine the risk of a rapa invasion in four hypothetical estuaries.

Bridge DATA: Tuna
The bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the most impressive fish in the oceans. Not only is it one of the largest and fastest fishes, but it can also fetch one of the highest market prices. Its enormous economic value combined with its life history characteristics make it vunerable to overfishing. This activity examines international fishing levels for bluefin tuna in the Atlantic.

Sea Turtle Survivor
Developed by Virginia Sea Grant educators for the Bridge, this research-based middle and high school classroom resource has information on the sea turtle species found in the Atlantic, an article on sea turtle nesting behavior, and the classroom activity Survivor!. Survivor! examines the survival rate of a nest of 100 loggerhead sea turtle eggs through the different life cycle stages.

Bridge DATA - $$$eaweed
Using data from the United Nation's Food & Agriculture Organization and TradeDataNet, students will explore harvest and production data of seaweed around the world.

Bridge DATA - Aquaculture: A Cornucopia?
Compare aquaculture production statistics for the U.S. and Canada to evaluate the demand for fisheries products.

Bridge DATA - Catch and Release II
Investigate trends in catch and release fishing with data from the National Marine Fisheries Service Marine Recreational Fisheries program.We first brought you this DATA exercise in 2000 when we took a look at a new generation of ethical anglers participating in "catch and release" fishing. Now we check back in to see if the trends in catch and release fishing have changed.

Bridge DATA - Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu
Examine trends and effort for the Chilean sea bass using data from the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR).

Bridge DATA - Flotsam and Jetsam: A Little Litter Goes a Long Way
Using data from the International Coastal Cleanup, identify sources of marine debris and impacts of this debris on wildlife.

Bridge DATA - Harmful Algal Blooms
Compare concentrations of harmful algal blooms using NOAA's Coastal Services Center Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting (HABF) Project data.

Bridge DATA - Hold the Anchovies
Using Microsoft Excel, graph atmospheric and fisheries data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to look for evidence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and its connection to fish abundance.

Bridge DATA - Iced In
Analyze actual and predicted ice charts and use them to assess the effects of ice on wintertime shipping in the Great Lakes.

Bridge DATA - Iron Fertilization: Pumping Iron
Using data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, track chemical changes during an upwelling event and investigate the effects of iron enrichment.

Bridge DATA - Mercury Rising
Calculate the amount of fish a person can eat per month in order to stay within acceptable limits of the EPA's mercury guidlines.

Bridge DATA - More than Mud
Examine the effects of pollution on amphipods using data from the Chesapeake Ecotox Research Program.

Bridge DATA - Off the Hook
Explore bycatch issues and various reduction strategies using data from the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Bridge DATA - On the Half Shell: Raw Seafood
Seafood, and oysters in particular, are a holiday tradition for many. And, since December is an "R" month it's safe to eat oysters, right? Seafood handled and cooked properly is very safe to eat, but eaten raw can be a different story. Analyze vibrio bacteria data from the Centers for Disease Control to identify trends in outbreaks.

Bridge DATA - Oyster Gardens: No Soil Required!
Using data from Maryland Sea Grant Oyster Gardening Program, calculate oyster survivorship rates in Chesapeake Bay rivers.

Bridge DATA - Saving Sturgeon
Atlantic sturgeon have survived since the age of the dinosaurs. Centuries ago, these giant fish were abundant in Virginia rivers. However, today these fish are struggling to stay off the endangered species list. How could such an immense species that could survive for millions of years become nearly extinct in a few short centuries?

Bridge DATA - Sharks: Taking a Bite Out of the Myth
Explore trends in shark populations using shark landing data from the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Bridge DATA - The Dead Zone: A Marine Horror Story
Track the Dead Zone using water quality data from the Nutrient Enhanced Coastal Ocean Productivity (NECOP) Program.

Bridge DATA - The Heat is On: Global Climate Change Revisited
Using Mauna Loa and greenhouse gas data, evaluate trends over the past 50 years as well as seasonal variations in sea level.

Bridge DATA - The Scoop on Scallops
Quantify the abundance and distribution of sea scallops in and adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic closed areas.

Bridge DATA - Tsunami: Waves of Destruction
Using tsunami time travel maps, predict how long it will take a tsunami to reach the shore.

Bridge DATA - Waves: An Alternative Energy Source
Evaluate the feasibility of wave energy as a practical alternative energy source using ocean observing system (OOS) buoys.

Bridge DATA - West Coast Shipwrecks
Explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the U.S.

Bridge DATA: Tracking the Invasive Veined Rapa Whelk
Veined rapa whelks (Rapana venosa) are predatory marine snails that have been introduced into the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These large snails eat ecologically and commercially valuable shellfish including oysters and hard clams. Rapa whelks are long lived, reproductively active and have few predators making them likely to become established if the habitat environmental conditions are suitable. In this activity, students will determine the risk of a rapa invasion in four hypothetical estuaries.

Bridge DATA: Tuna
The bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is one of the most impressive fish in the oceans. Not only is it one of the largest and fastest fishes, but it can also fetch one of the highest market prices. Its enormous economic value combined with its life history characteristics make it vunerable to overfishing. This activity examines international fishing levels for bluefin tuna in the Atlantic.

Bridge DATA - Coral Bleaching: A White Hot Problem
Some of the planet's most diverse ecosystems are at risk. With temperatures on the rise, coral reefs are at greater risk for coral bleaching. In this DATA exercise, students assess coral bleaching using water temperature data from the NOAA National Data Buoy Center to discuss howit may have affected coral reefs and predict what may be on the horizon.

Bridge DATA - Diversity of the Deep
Explore the diversity of organisms living on deep sea hydrothermal vents! In this exercise, students calculate species richness, evenness and diversity for collections of deep sea organisms using data collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

Bridge DATA - Fish Communities
Compare and contrast fish communities, diversity and habitats in U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries.

Bridge DATA - For the Birds!
Compare marine bird sighting report data from the Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC).

Bridge DATA - Galapagos: Discover the Diversity
Using data from FishBase, explore the various fish species that exist in the Galapagos Islands.

Bridge DATA - Iron Fertilization: Pumping Iron
Using data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, track chemical changes during an upwelling event and investigate the effects of iron enrichment.

Bridge DATA - Let's Count Humpback Whales
Using whale count data from the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, compare whale counts in relation to environmental factors.

Bridge DATA - More Than Meets the Eye
When it comes to ability to see their prey, there's more than meets the eye for some species of large pelagic fishes. Evaluate fish physiology and ecology using vision research data from Dr. Kerstin Fritsches at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.

Bridge DATA - More than Mud
Examine the effects of pollution on amphipods using data from the Chesapeake Ecotox Research Program.

Bridge DATA - Off the Hook
Explore bycatch issues and various reduction strategies using data from the National Marine Fisheries Service.

Bridge DATA - On the Half Shell: Raw Seafood
Seafood, and oysters in particular, are a holiday tradition for many. And, since December is an "R" month it's safe to eat oysters, right? Seafood handled and cooked properly is very safe to eat, but eaten raw can be a different story. Analyze vibrio bacteria data from the Centers for Disease Control to identify trends in outbreaks.

Bridge DATA - Oyster Gardens: No Soil Required!
Using data from Maryland Sea Grant Oyster Gardening Program, calculate oyster survivorship rates in Chesapeake Bay rivers.

Bridge DATA - Saving Sturgeon
Atlantic sturgeon have survived since the age of the dinosaurs. Centuries ago, these giant fish were abundant in Virginia rivers. However, today these fish are struggling to stay off the endangered species list. How could such an immense species that could survive for millions of years become nearly extinct in a few short centuries?

Bridge DATA - The Blue Crab's Chesapeake Journey
Determine the areas of the Chesapeake Bay that are being used by blue crabs during different life stages using data from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) trawl survey.

Bridge DATA - The Goose is Loose!
Explore trends in Canada goose populations using data from the National Audubon Society's Christmas Bird Count.

Bridge DATA - Without An Ark
Investigate the impacts of a hurricane on the New River in North Carolina using streamflow data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Bridge DATA: Coral Snapshots
While it is possible to survey a coral reef using quadrats, scientists are now using technology to closely examine the entire reef; instead of extrapolating results from several study sites. Scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science are taking video of reefs and then analyzing it via a computer program back in the lab. This method cuts down on the inherent error associated with the quadrat system and actually requires less time and money spent in the field.

Bridge DATA: Oyster Disease
A relatively new oyster disease in New England waters is affecting survival rates of young oysters. Using data from the University of Maine, students will determine if oyster size, time of planting, or water temperature is significant in relation to the onset of juvenile oyster disease.

Bridge DATA: Tracking the Invasive Veined Rapa Whelk
Veined rapa whelks (Rapana venosa) are predatory marine snails that have been introduced into the Chesapeake Bay, USA. These large snails eat ecologically and commercially valuable shellfish including oysters and hard clams. Rapa whelks are long lived, reproductively active and have few predators making them likely to become established if the habitat environmental conditions are suitable. In this activity, students will determine the risk of a rapa invasion in four hypothetical estuaries.

Sea Turtle Survivor
Developed by Virginia Sea Grant educators for the Bridge, this research-based middle and high school classroom resource has information on the sea turtle species found in the Atlantic, an article on sea turtle nesting behavior, and the classroom activity Survivor!. Survivor! examines the survival rate of a nest of 100 loggerhead sea turtle eggs through the different life cycle stages.

Bridge DATA - Cold One Day, Warm Another?
Using water temperature and wind vector data from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility explore trends in nearshore upwelling.

Bridge DATA - Don't Even Sink About It
Does a pen float? How about a can of soda? Does salt water really make that much difference? What’s a Plimsoll mark? What do rubber ducks have to do with all this? Buoyancy can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. It’s all about density! With this hands-on introduction to buoyancy, students work through activities and demonstrations that use online resources and ocean observing systems data to investigate the buoyancy considerations of inland, coastal and oceanic shipping.

Bridge DATA - Oceanography: Classroom BATS
Analyze Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study data to observe chemical, physical, and biological properties of the ocean at work.

Bridge DATA - Sea Level Trends
This lesson is designed as an introductory activity exploring one facet of global climate change. Students will access real scientific data to investigate and compare long-term changes in sea level from different coastal locations around the United States.

Bridge DATA - Sea State
Cast real time sea state conditions using buoys from NOAA's National Data Buoy Center.

Bridge DATA - The Ins and Outs of Tides
Compare predicted and observed tides using data from NOAA.

Bridge DATA - The Tip of the Iceberg
Using data from the National Ice Center, track the trajectory of Antarctic icebergs.

Bridge DATA - Tsunami: Waves of Destruction
Using tsunami time travel maps, predict how long it will take a tsunami to reach the shore.

Bridge DATA - Waves: An Alternative Energy Source
Evaluate the feasibility of wave energy as a practical alternative energy source using ocean observing system (OOS) buoys.

Bridge DATA: Heat Capacity
Why does coffee take so long to cool down? Why is ocean water sometimes the warmest when the average daily air temperature starts to drop? How can buoys help us explore these questions? In this hands-on introduction to heat capacity by the Bridge and COSEE-NOW, students explore the concept and its effects on our daily lives. Students use ocean observing system data to investigate why water acts as a thermal buffer and the practical applications this has.

Bridge DATA - $$$eaweed
Using data from the United Nation's Food & Agriculture Organization and TradeDataNet, students will explore harvest and production data of seaweed around the world.

Bridge DATA - Conductivity
Using real-time data from buoys around the coastal U.S., students will explore the effects of salts in the water, as well as the effects of other parameters on the conductivity of the water.

Bridge DATA - Diversity of the Deep
Explore the diversity of organisms living on deep sea hydrothermal vents! In this exercise, students calculate species richness, evenness and diversity for collections of deep sea organisms using data collected from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean.

Bridge DATA - Don't Even Sink About It
Does a pen float? How about a can of soda? Does salt water really make that much difference? What’s a Plimsoll mark? What do rubber ducks have to do with all this? Buoyancy can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. It’s all about density! With this hands-on introduction to buoyancy, students work through activities and demonstrations that use online resources and ocean observing systems data to investigate the buoyancy considerations of inland, coastal and oceanic shipping.

Bridge DATA - Harmful Algal Blooms
Compare concentrations of harmful algal blooms using NOAA's Coastal Services Center Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting (HABF) Project data.

Bridge DATA - Iron Fertilization: Pumping Iron
Using data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, track chemical changes during an upwelling event and investigate the effects of iron enrichment.

Bridge DATA - Oceanography: Classroom BATS
Analyze Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study data to observe chemical, physical, and biological properties of the ocean at work.

Bridge DATA - The Dead Zone: A Marine Horror Story
Track the Dead Zone using water quality data from the Nutrient Enhanced Coastal Ocean Productivity (NECOP) Program.

Bridge DATA - Cold One Day, Warm Another?
Using water temperature and wind vector data from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility explore trends in nearshore upwelling.

Bridge DATA - Coral Bleaching: A White Hot Problem
Some of the planet's most diverse ecosystems are at risk. With temperatures on the rise, coral reefs are at greater risk for coral bleaching. In this DATA exercise, students assess coral bleaching using water temperature data from the NOAA National Data Buoy Center to discuss howit may have affected coral reefs and predict what may be on the horizon.

Bridge DATA - Haunted by Hurricanes
Determine if the frequency and intensity of hurricanes are changing using data from the National Hurricane Center.

Bridge DATA - Hold the Anchovies
Using Microsoft Excel, graph atmospheric and fisheries data from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute to look for evidence of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and its connection to fish abundance.

Bridge DATA - Iced In
Analyze actual and predicted ice charts and use them to assess the effects of ice on wintertime shipping in the Great Lakes.

Bridge DATA - Satellites and Storms
Which does more damage to the coast, a fast moving, super-powerful hurricane, or a slow-moving, powerful northeaster (more commonly referred to as a nor'easter)? How does ocean temperature affect hurricane strength? Where does the name nor’easter come from? This activity serves as an introduction to these weather phenomena which critically impact our coasts each year. Students will use weather maps and ocean observing system data to explore hurricanes and nor'easters and their effects on vital habitats, our beaches, and our communities.

Bridge DATA - Sea Level Trends
This lesson is designed as an introductory activity exploring one facet of global climate change. Students will access real scientific data to investigate and compare long-term changes in sea level from different coastal locations around the United States.

Bridge DATA - The Heat is On: Global Climate Change Revisited
Using Mauna Loa and greenhouse gas data, evaluate trends over the past 50 years as well as seasonal variations in sea level.

Bridge DATA - The Return of El Nino
Examine temperature and precipitation data to determine if climate variations are due to El Niño.

Bridge DATA - Without An Ark
Investigate the impacts of a hurricane on the New River in North Carolina using streamflow data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Bridge DATA: Heat Capacity
Why does coffee take so long to cool down? Why is ocean water sometimes the warmest when the average daily air temperature starts to drop? How can buoys help us explore these questions? In this hands-on introduction to heat capacity by the Bridge and COSEE-NOW, students explore the concept and its effects on our daily lives. Students use ocean observing system data to investigate why water acts as a thermal buffer and the practical applications this has.

Bridge DATA - Coastal Erosion: Where's the Beach?
Using beach profile data from Ocean City, Maryland, investigate coastal erosion and sediment transport.

Bridge DATA - Diatomaceous Sediments: Ooze Clues
Just as ocean beaches display a variety of sand types, the ocean floor has different sediment types. Sediments can come from land, living organisms, chemical reactions in the water column, and even outer space. When skeletal remains of microscopic organisms make up more than 30% of the sediment, it is called "ooze." In this activity, students will plot the distribution of various oozes using information from sediment maps.

Bridge DATA - Plate Tectonics: Recycling the Seafloor
Outline the location of plate boundaries using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Accoustic Monitoring Program's underwater earthquake data.

Bridge DATA - Tsunami: Waves of Destruction
Using tsunami time travel maps, predict how long it will take a tsunami to reach the shore.

Bridge DATA - Cold One Day, Warm Another?
Using water temperature and wind vector data from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility explore trends in nearshore upwelling.

Bridge DATA - Conductivity
Using real-time data from buoys around the coastal U.S., students will explore the effects of salts in the water, as well as the effects of other parameters on the conductivity of the water.

Bridge DATA - Coral Bleaching: A White Hot Problem
Some of the planet's most diverse ecosystems are at risk. With temperatures on the rise, coral reefs are at greater risk for coral bleaching. In this DATA exercise, students assess coral bleaching using water temperature data from the NOAA National Data Buoy Center to discuss howit may have affected coral reefs and predict what may be on the horizon.

Bridge DATA - Satellites and Storms
Which does more damage to the coast, a fast moving, super-powerful hurricane, or a slow-moving, powerful northeaster (more commonly referred to as a nor'easter)? How does ocean temperature affect hurricane strength? Where does the name nor’easter come from? This activity serves as an introduction to these weather phenomena which critically impact our coasts each year. Students will use weather maps and ocean observing system data to explore hurricanes and nor'easters and their effects on vital habitats, our beaches, and our communities.

Bridge DATA - Sea Level Trends
This lesson is designed as an introductory activity exploring one facet of global climate change. Students will access real scientific data to investigate and compare long-term changes in sea level from different coastal locations around the United States.

Bridge DATA - Sea State
Cast real time sea state conditions using buoys from NOAA's National Data Buoy Center.

Bridge DATA - The Ins and Outs of Tides
Compare predicted and observed tides using data from NOAA.

Bridge DATA - The Return of El Nino
Examine temperature and precipitation data to determine if climate variations are due to El Niño.

Bridge DATA - The Tip of the Iceberg
Using data from the National Ice Center, track the trajectory of Antarctic icebergs.

Bridge DATA - Waves: An Alternative Energy Source
Evaluate the feasibility of wave energy as a practical alternative energy source using ocean observing system (OOS) buoys.

Bridge DATA: Coral Snapshots
While it is possible to survey a coral reef using quadrats, scientists are now using technology to closely examine the entire reef; instead of extrapolating results from several study sites. Scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science are taking video of reefs and then analyzing it via a computer program back in the lab. This method cuts down on the inherent error associated with the quadrat system and actually requires less time and money spent in the field.

Bridge DATA: Heat Capacity
Why does coffee take so long to cool down? Why is ocean water sometimes the warmest when the average daily air temperature starts to drop? How can buoys help us explore these questions? In this hands-on introduction to heat capacity by the Bridge and COSEE-NOW, students explore the concept and its effects on our daily lives. Students use ocean observing system data to investigate why water acts as a thermal buffer and the practical applications this has.